Faculty & Research
- John Assad, Ph.D.
- Bruce P. Bean, Ph.D
- Richard T. Born, M.D.
- David Cardozo, Ph.D.
- David E. Clapham, M.D., Ph.D.
- Jonathan Cohen, Ph.D.
- David P. Corey, Ph.D.
- S. Robert Datta, M.D., Ph.D.
- Ruth Anne Eatock, Ph.D.
- Edwin J. Furshpan, Ph.D.
- Lisa V. Goodrich, Ph.D.
- Michael E. Greenberg, Ph.D.
- Chenghua Gu, D.V.M., Ph.D.
- Chris Harvey, Ph.D.
- Corey Harwell, Ph.D.
- David H. Hubel, M.D.
- Pascal S. Kaeser, M.D.
- Morris J. Karnovsky, M.B.B.CH., D.Sc.
- Joshua M. Kaplan, Ph.D
- Edward A. Kravitz, Ph.D.
- Margaret S. Livingstone, Ph.D.
- Qiufu Ma, Ph.D.
- Richard H. Masland, Ph.D.
- Joseph B. Martin, M.D., Ph.D.
- John H.R. Maunsell, Ph.D.
- David L. Paul, Ph.D.
- David D. Potter, Ph.D.
- Elio Raviola, M.D., Ph.D.
- Wade Regehr, Ph.D.
- R. Clay Reid, M.D., Ph.D.
- Dragana Rogulja, Ph.D.
- Bernardo Sabatini, M.D, Ph.D
- Thomas L. Schwarz, Ph.D.
- Rosalind Segal, M.D., Ph.D.
- Charles D. Stiles, Ph.D.
- Charles J. Weitz, M.D., Ph.D.
- Rachel I. Wilson , Ph.D.
- Clifford Woolf, M.D., Ph.D.
- Gary Yellen, Ph.D.
Margaret S. Livingstone, Ph.D.
Professor of Neurobiology
We have long been interested in how tuning properties of individual neurons can be clustered at a gross level in the brain. We began by looking at the parallel processing of different kinds of visual information, going back and forth between human psychophysics, anatomical interconnectivity of modules in the primate brain, and single unit receptive-field properties. We discovered an interdigitating and highly specific connectivity between functionally distinct regions in V1 and V2 differentially concerned with processing form, color, motion and depth (Livingstone and Hubel, 1984, 1987).
Doris Tsao and Winrich Freiwald used functional MRI to localize face processing regions in the primate brain, and then used functional MRI to target single-unit recording to these functional modules. We found an astonishingly high proportion of cells in these fMRI-identified regions to highly face selective (Tsao et al, 2006).
Targeting an fMRI-identified face patch with a single-unit electrode. (top left) A semi-sagittal section through the right hemisphere of monkey M1 showing three face-selective patches along the STS. The three white arrows point to the lesion left by the recording guide tube. (bottom left) Two coronal slices showing the middle face patch in two monkeys with arrows pointing to the specific region targeted for electrophysiology. (right) Face selectivity of single units in the middle face patch 96 images of faces, bodies, fruits, gadgets, hands, and scrambled patterns (16 images/category. Each row represents one cell and each column one image. The rows have been sorted by the Face Selectivity Index and the columns by image category.
We then went on to characterize the tuning properties of this functional module, finding that face cells tend to be tuned to extremes of face parameters, such as intereye distance, eye size, etc Freiwald et al 2009). This finding suggests why caricatures are so effective in evoking identity.
Tuning of face cells to a cartoon face space. (a) Three example dimensions of a 19-dimensional cartoon space. Each row shows example values for one parameter, with all other parameters fixed at their mean. (b) Tuning curves of two example cells to each of the 19 feature dimensions. Maximal, minimal, and mean values from shift predictor are shown in gray. Stars mark significant modulation.
Currently we are again combining functional MRI and single unit recording to explore the effects of early intensive training on symbol recognition.
A side interest in the lab is to use what we know about vision to understand some of the discoveries artists have made about how we see. The separate processing of color and form information has a parallel in artists' idea that color and luminance play very different roles in art (Livingstone, Vision and Art, Abrams Press, 2002). The elusive quality of the Mona Lisa's smile can be explained by the fact that her smile is almost entirely in low spatial frequencies, and so is seen best by your peripheral vision (Science, 290, 1299). These three images show her face filtered to show selectively lowest (left) low (middle) and high (right) spatial frequencies.
So when you look at her eyes or the background, you see a smile like the one on the left, or in the middle, and you think she is smiling. But when you look directly at her mouth, it looks more like the panel on the right, and her smile seems to vanish. The fact that the degree of her smile varies so much with gaze angle makes her expression dynamic, and the fact that her smile vanishes when you look directly at it, makes it seem elusive.
We have been looking at depth perception in artists, because poor depth perception might be an asset in a profession where the goal is to flatten a 3-D scene onto a canvas. We found evidence that a surprisingly large number of talented artists, including Rembrandt, might be stereoblind (Livingstone and Conway, 2004). In the etching below you can see that Rembrandt portrayed himself as strabismic (with misaligned eyes). If this were the case in only one or two of his self portraits, or if he also showed other subjects with misaligned eyes, we wouldn’t think anything of it, but Rembrandt most of the time portrays himself, but not other subjects, as wall-eyed, and the outward deviating eye is reversed in his paintings compared with his etchings (think about it!)
Recording of the Penny W. Stamps distinguished visitors series at the University of Michigan School of Art & Design:
What Art Can tell us about the Brain
Recording of Ireland Lecture at University of Alabama
Srihasam, K, Sullivan, KJ, Savage, T, and Livingstone, MS (2010) Non-invasive functional MRI in alert monkeys. Neuroimage, in press
Freiwald WA, Tsao DY, and Livingstone MS (2009) A face feature space in the macaque temporal lobe. Nature Neuroscience 12: 1187-1196.
Libedinsky, C, Savage, T and Livingstone, M (2009) Perceptual and physiological evidence for a role for early visual areas in motion-induced blindness. Journal of Vision 9:1-10.
Tsao, DY and Livingstone, MS (2008) Mechanisms of face perception. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 31: 411-437.
Tsao, DY, Freiwald, WA, Tootell, RBH and Livingstone, MS (2006) A cortical region consisting entirely of face cells. Science, 311:670-674.
Conway BR, Kitaoka, A, Yazdanbakhsh, A, Pack, CC and Livingstone MS (2005) Neural basis for a powerful static motion illusion. J. Neurosci. 25:5651-5656.
Livingstone, M.S. and Conway, B.R. (2004) Was Rembrandt Stereoblind? New England Journal of Medicine 351: 1264-1265.