Edward Kravitz, Ph.D.

George Packer Berry Professor of Neurobiology
  • Kravitz Lab
  • 617/432-1753

GENETIC MANIPULATIONS IN THE FRUIT FLY FIGHT CLUB: Aggression is a nearly universal feature of the behavior of social animals. In the wild, it is used to procure food and shelter, for protection from predation and for selection of mates, all of which are essential for survival. Despite its importance, little is known of the neural mechanisms that underlie aggressive behavior, other than that hormonal substances, including amines, peptides and steroid hormones serve important roles in the behavior. Our past studies have examined aggression using the American lobster Homarus americanus as a model system. About a dozen years ago, however, the major focus of the laboratory shifted to the examination of fighting behavior using common strains of the fruit fly, Drosophilia melanogaster. Although not widely known at the time, fruit flies do fight and males at least become territorial (establish dominance relationships). With the genome fully sequenced and with elegant methods available for the selective manipulation of genes in subsets of central nervous system neurons, behavioral studies of aggression in flies offer a powerful experimental system for identifying the fundamental mechanisms underlying this behavior.

CURRENT RESEARCH: Early results with this model system demonstrated that male and female flies compete over resources in same sex pairings. Male fights lead to the establishment of hierarchical relationships while female fights end up with flies sharing resources. In male fights, defeated flies develop a “loser mentality” in which they will lose all subsequent fights with either familiar or unfamiliar opponents, although they fight differently against opponents in the two cases. The duration of the memory of losing is dependent on the training protocol, with a “spaced” training protocol leading to the “loser mentality” being extended for up to a week. At present there are two main themes under investigation in the laboratory. I.The role of amines in aggression: how do amine neurons work? In earlier studies when we manipulated entire pools of serotonin, dopamine or octopamine (fly equivalent of norepinephrine) neurons (100-200 of each subtype) in aggression or other social behaviors, we generated interesting phenotypes. For example, we found that serotonin was not required to initiate aggression, but was involved in facilitating the transition to higher-level aggression during fights. By contrast octopamine, appeared to be involved in the choice between courtship and aggression and not involved directly in transitions to different intensity levels. Dopamine deficiency generated hyperactive flies that did not interact in social behaviors with other flies. In more recent studies aimed at better understanding of the roles of amines, we generated a method that allowed us to reproducibly look at amine neurons one by one. To perform these experiments, we developed an intersectional genetic method that allows us to restrict the numbers of neurons isolated of each subtype by combining the binary Gal4/UAS system with the flp/frt recombinase technique. Using this method, we identified a single pair of serotonin neurons that appear to be involved in going to higher intensity levels in fights, and two pairs of dopamine neurons that appear to do the opposite: they limit the ability to go to higher intensity levels. These pairs of single neuron types are specialists in aggression and are not involved in other social behaviors of fruit flies. Thus via this approach we believe we have identified key control points in the neuronal circuitry associated with aggression in flies and have generated tools and methods that allow us to manipulate these control points in live, awake and socially interacting flies. Through a different novel genetic technique we can identify the pre- and post- synaptic contacts of the amine neurons, and thereby begin to unravel parts of the circuitry that governs a complex behavior like aggression. II. The “loser mentality” and other long term aggression-related changes in behavior induced during development or through fighting experience as adults: The experience of winning or losing in male fly fights can lead to long term changes in the behavior of flies in subsequent fights. The “loser mentality” described above is being explored in the laboratory at the present time as a potential model of “chronic” or “conditioned” defeat by asking if other behaviors like sleep, feeding or courtship success also are influenced in loser flies. Drugs that are used in clinics to treat various psychiatric conditions in humans also are being examined to ask whether they influence any of the parameters altered by chronic defeat. Inbreeding of winners in fights can lead to the generation of “bullies”, who will win all fights against the Canton-S starting parent line. The “bullies” begin fights earlier, accelerate to higher intensity levels more quickly and always retaliate against “lunging” by an opponent, in their fights. In contests between paired bullies, however, a loser is generated who loses all competitive advantage against all opponents for a short period of time. They revert to bullies again, however, over the next several hours. We are very interested in the nature of the changes that take place in the nervous systems of male flies to create the hyper-aggressive “bully” phenotype. Whatever the nature of those changes, they occur during a short window in development during the pupal life of flies.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0751650 and by the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences under grant Nos. GM067645 and GM074675.
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the the Kravitz Laboratory at Harvard Medical School and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF) or the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS).

We are very interested in the nature of the changes that take place in the nervous systems of male flies to create the hyper-aggressive 'bully' phenotype. Whatever the nature of those changes, they occur during a short window in development during the pupal life of flies.

  1. Fernández MP, Kravitz EA. Aggression and courtship in Drosophila: pheromonal communication and sex recognition. September 17, 2013. Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology.

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  2. Alekseyenko OV, Chan YB, Li R, Kravitz EA. Single dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila. March 25, 2013. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  3. Rezával C, Pavlou HJ, Dornan AJ, Chan YB, Kravitz EA, Goodwin SF. Neural circuitry underlying Drosophila female postmating behavioral responses. May 31, 2012. Current biology : CB.

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  4. Certel SJ, Kravitz EA. Scoring and analyzing aggression in Drosophila. March 1, 2012. Cold Spring Harbor protocols.

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  5. Jonsson T, Kravitz EA, Heinrich R. Sound production during agonistic behavior of male Drosophila melanogaster. January 1, 2011. Fly.

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  6. Fernández MP, Chan YB, Yew JY, Billeter JC, Dreisewerd K, Levine JD, Kravitz EA. Pheromonal and behavioral cues trigger male-to-female aggression in Drosophila. November 23, 2010. PLoS biology.

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  7. Certel SJ, Leung A, Lin CY, Perez P, Chiang AS, Kravitz EA. Octopamine neuromodulatory effects on a social behavior decision-making network in Drosophila males. October 12, 2010. PloS one.

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  8. Penn JK, Zito MF, Kravitz EA. A single social defeat reduces aggression in a highly aggressive strain of Drosophila. June 28, 2010. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  9. Alekseyenko OV, Lee C, Kravitz EA. Targeted manipulation of serotonergic neurotransmission affects the escalation of aggression in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. May 24, 2010. PloS one.

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  10. Yew JY, Dreisewerd K, Luftmann H, Müthing J, Pohlentz G, Kravitz EA. A new male sex pheromone and novel cuticular cues for chemical communication in Drosophila. July 16, 2009. Current biology : CB.

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  11. Mundiyanapurath S, Chan YB, Leung AK, Kravitz EA. Feminizing cholinergic neurons in a male Drosophila nervous system enhances aggression. July 7, 2009. Fly.

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  12. Siwicki KK, Kravitz EA. Fruitless, doublesex and the genetics of social behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. June 21, 2009. Current opinion in neurobiology.

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  13. Kravitz EA. An interview with Edward A. Kravitz. May 26, 2009. Current biology : CB.

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  14. Yew JY, Wang Y, Barteneva N, Dikler S, Kutz-Naber KK, Li L, Kravitz EA. Analysis of neuropeptide expression and localization in adult drosophila melanogaster central nervous system by affinity cell-capture mass spectrometry. March 1, 2009. Journal of proteome research.

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  15. Yew JY, Cody RB, Kravitz EA. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis of an awake behaving fly using direct analysis in real-time time-of-flight mass spectrometry. May 12, 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  16. Chan YB, Kravitz EA. Specific subgroups of FruM neurons control sexually dimorphic patterns of aggression in Drosophila melanogaster. November 27, 2007. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  17. Miczek KA, de Almeida RM, Kravitz EA, Rissman EF, de Boer SF, Raine A. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence. October 31, 2007. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  18. Certel SJ, Savella MG, Schlegel DC, Kravitz EA. Modulation of Drosophila male behavioral choice. March 5, 2007. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  19. Mundiyanapurath S, Certel S, Kravitz EA. Studying aggression in Drosophila (fruit flies). February 25, 2007. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

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  20. Ganter GK, Walton KL, Merriman JO, Salmon MV, Brooks KM, Maddula S, Kravitz EA. Increased male-male courtship in ecdysone receptor deficient adult flies. January 20, 2007. Behavior genetics.

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  21. Vrontou E, Nilsen SP, Demir E, Kravitz EA, Dickson BJ. fruitless regulates aggression and dominance in Drosophila. November 19, 2006. Nature neuroscience.

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  22. Yurkovic A, Wang O, Basu AC, Kravitz EA. Learning and memory associated with aggression in Drosophila melanogaster. November 6, 2006. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  23. Hernáindez-Falcón J, Basu AC, Govindasamy S, Kravitz EA. Changes in heart rate associated with contest outcome in agonistic encounters in lobsters. March 1, 2005. Cellular and molecular neurobiology.

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  24. Rutishauser RL, Basu AC, Cromarty SI, Kravitz EA. Long-term consequences of agonistic interactions between socially naive juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus). December 1, 2004. The Biological bulletin.

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  25. Nilsen SP, Chan YB, Huber R, Kravitz EA. Gender-selective patterns of aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. August 9, 2004. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  26. Thimineur MA, Kravitz E, Vodapally MS. Intrathecal opioid treatment for chronic non-malignant pain: a 3-year prospective study. June 1, 2004. Pain.

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  27. Kravitz EA, Huber R. Aggression in invertebrates. December 1, 2003. Current opinion in neurobiology.

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  28. Basu AC, Kravitz EA. Morphology and monoaminergic modulation of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone-like immunoreactive neurons in the lobster nervous system. March 1, 2003. Journal of neurocytology.

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  29. Thimineur M, Kitaj M, Kravitz E, Kalizewski T, Sood P. Functional abnormalities of the cervical cord and lower medulla and their effect on pain: observations in chronic pain patients with incidental mild Chiari I malformation and moderate to severe cervical cord compression. May 1, 2002. The Clinical journal of pain.

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  30. Chen S, Lee AY, Bowens NM, Huber R, Kravitz EA. Fighting fruit flies: a model system for the study of aggression. April 16, 2002. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  31. Doernberg SB, Cromarty SI, Heinrich R, Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Agonistic behavior in naïve juvenile lobsters depleted of serotonin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. March 1, 2001. Journal of comparative physiology. A, Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology.

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  32. Heinrich R, Bräunig P, Walter I, Schneider H, Kravitz EA. Aminergic neuron systems of lobsters: morphology and electrophysiology of octopamine-containing neurosecretory cells. July 1, 2000. Journal of comparative physiology. A, Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology.

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  33. Kravitz EA. Serotonin and aggression: insights gained from a lobster model system and speculations on the role of amine neurons in a complex behavior. March 1, 2000. Journal of comparative physiology. A, Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology.

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  34. Schneider H, Baro DJ, Bailey D, Ganter G, Harris-Warrick RM, Kravitz EA. Patterns of shaker family gene expression in single identified neurons of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. January 1, 2000. Receptors & channels.

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  35. Chang ES, Chang SA, Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the lobster nervous system: localization and release from cells in the subesophageal ganglion and thoracic second roots. November 8, 1999. The Journal of comparative neurology.

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  36. Heinrich R, Cromarty SI, Hörner M, Edwards DH, Kravitz EA. Autoinhibition of serotonin cells: an intrinsic regulatory mechanism sensitive to the pattern of usage of the cells. March 2, 1999. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  37. Thimineur M, Sood P, Kravitz E, Gudin J, Kitaj M. Central nervous system abnormalities in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS): clinical and quantitative evidence of medullary dysfunction. September 1, 1998. The Clinical journal of pain.

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  38. Edwards DH, Kravitz EA. Serotonin, social status and aggression. December 1, 1997. Current opinion in neurobiology.

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  39. Teschemacher A, Kasparov S, Kravitz EA, Rahamimoff R. Presynaptic action of the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate on inhibitory transmitter release in cultured hippocampal neurons. October 24, 1997. Brain research.

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  40. Hörner M, Weiger WA, Edwards DH, Kravitz EA. Excitation of identified serotonergic neurons by escape command neurons in lobsters. July 1, 1997. The Journal of experimental biology.

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  41. Huber R, Smith K, Delago A, Isaksson K, Kravitz EA. Serotonin and aggressive motivation in crustaceans: altering the decision to retreat. May 27, 1997. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  42. Huber R, Orzeszyna M, Pokorny N, Kravitz EA. Biogenic amines and aggression: experimental approaches in crustaceans. January 1, 1997. Brain, behavior and evolution.

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  43. Schneider H, Budhiraja P, Walter I, Beltz BS, Peckol E, Kravitz EA. Developmental expression of the octopamine phenotype in lobsters, Homarus americanus. July 15, 1996. The Journal of comparative neurology.

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  44. Huber R, Kravitz EA. A quantitative analysis of agonistic behavior in juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L.). January 1, 1995. Brain, behavior and evolution.

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  45. Worden MK, Kravitz EA, Goy MF. Peptide F1, an N-terminally extended analog of FMRFamide, enhances contractile activity in multiple target tissues in lobster. January 1, 1995. The Journal of experimental biology.

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  46. Worden MK, Rahamimoff R, Kravitz EA. A voltage-sensitive cation channel present in clusters in lobster skeletal muscle membrane. August 1, 1994. The Journal of membrane biology.

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  47. Worden MK, Rahamimoff R, Kravitz EA. Ion channel activity in lobster skeletal muscle membrane. September 1, 1993. The Journal of experimental biology.

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  48. Schneider H, Trimmer BA, Rapus J, Eckert M, Valentine DE, Kravitz EA. Mapping of octopamine-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous system of the lobster. March 1, 1993. The Journal of comparative neurology.

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  49. Ma PM, Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Serotonin-containing neurons in lobsters: their role as gain-setters in postural control mechanisms. July 1, 1992. Journal of neurophysiology.

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  50. Abdul-Ghani M, Kravitz EA, Meiri H, Rahamimoff R. Protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid enhances transmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. March 1, 1991. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  51. Beltz BS, Pontes M, Helluy SM, Kravitz EA. Patterns of appearance of serotonin and proctolin immunoreactivities in the developing nervous system of the American lobster. June 1, 1990. Journal of neurobiology.

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  52. Goy MF, Kravitz EA. Cyclic AMP only partially mediates the actions of serotonin at lobster neuromuscular junctions. January 1, 1989. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  53. Kravitz EA. Hormonal control of behavior: amines and the biasing of behavioral output in lobsters. September 30, 1988. Science (New York, N.Y.).

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  54. Trimmer BA, Kobierski LA, Kravitz EA. Purification and characterization of FMRFamidelike immunoreactive substances from the lobster nervous system: isolation and sequence analysis of two closely related peptides. December 1, 1987. The Journal of comparative neurology.

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  55. Kobierski LA, Beltz BS, Trimmer BA, Kravitz EA. FMRFamidelike peptides of Homarus americanus: distribution, immunocytochemical mapping, and ultrastructural localization in terminal varicosities. December 1, 1987. The Journal of comparative neurology.

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  56. Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Physiological identification, morphological analysis, and development of identified serotonin-proctolin containing neurons in the lobster ventral nerve cord. February 1, 1987. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  57. Siwicki KK, Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Proctolin in identified serotonergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neurons in the lobster, Homarus americanus. February 1, 1987. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  58. Siwicki KK, Beltz BS, Schwarz TL, Kravitz EA. Proctolin in the lobster nervous system. January 1, 1985. Peptides.

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  59. Harris-Warrick RM, Kravitz EA. Cellular mechanisms for modulation of posture by octopamine and serotonin in the lobster. August 1, 1984. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  60. Schwarz TL, Lee GM, Siwicki KK, Standaert DG, Kravitz EA. Proctolin in the lobster: the distribution, release, and chemical characterization of a likely neurohormone. May 1, 1984. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  61. Goy MF, Schwarz TL, Kravitz EA. Serotonin-induced protein phosphorylation in a lobster neuromuscular preparation. March 1, 1984. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  62. Johnston MF, Kravitz EA, Meiri H, Rahamimoff R. Adrenocorticotropic hormone causes long-lasting potentiation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals. June 3, 1983. Science (New York, N.Y.).

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  63. Beltz BS, Kravitz EA. Mapping of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the lobster nervous system. March 1, 1983. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.

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  64. Glusman S, Kravitz EA. The action of serotonin on excitatory nerve terminals in lobster nerve-muscle preparations. April 1, 1982. The Journal of physiology.

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  65. Bergman H, Glusman S, Harris-Warrick RM, Kravitz EA, Nussinovitch I, Rahamimoff R. Noradrenaline augments tetanic potentiation of transmitter release by a calcium dependent process. June 9, 1981. Brain research.

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  66. Livingstone MS, Schaeffer SF, Kravitz EA. Biochemistry and ultrastructure of serotonergic nerve endings in the lobster: serotonin and octopamine are contained in different nerve endings. January 1, 1981. Journal of neurobiology.

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  67. Kravitz EA, Glusman S, Harris-Warrick RM, Livingstone MS, Schwarz T, Goy MF. Amines and a peptide as neurohormones in lobsters: actions on neuromuscular preparations and preliminary behavioural studies. December 1, 1980. The Journal of experimental biology.

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  68. Schwarz TL, Harris-Warrick RM, Glusman S, Kravitz EA. A peptide action in a lobster neuromuscular preparation. November 1, 1980. Journal of neurobiology.

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  69. Livingstone MS, Harris-Warrick RM, Kravitz EA. Serotonin and octopamine produce opposite postures in lobsters. April 4, 1980. Science (New York, N.Y.).

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  70. Battelle BA, Kravitz EA, Stieve H. Neurotransmitter synthesis in Limulus ventral nerve photoreceptors. June 15, 1979. Experientia.

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  71. Konishi S, Kravitz EA. The physiological properties of amine-containing neurones in the lobster nervous system. June 1, 1978. The Journal of physiology.

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  72. Battelle BA, Kravitz EA. Targets of octopamine action in the lobster: cyclic nucleotide changes and physiological effects in hemolymph, heart and exoskeletal muscle. May 1, 1978. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics.

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  73. Evans PD, Kravitz EA, Talamo BR. Octopamine release at two points along lobster nerve trunks. October 1, 1976. The Journal of physiology.

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  74. Evans PD, Kravitz EA, Talamo BR, Wallace BG. The association of octopamine with specific neurones along lobster nerve trunks. October 1, 1976. The Journal of physiology.

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  75. Kravitz EA, Evans PD, Talamo BR, Wallace BG, Battelle BA. Octopamine neurons in lobsters: location, morphology, release of octopamine and possible physiological role. January 1, 1976. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology.

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  76. Evans PD, Talamo BR, Kravitz EA. Octopamine neurons: morphology, release of octopamine and possible physiological role. June 13, 1975. Brain research.

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  77. Hildebrand JG, Townsel JG, Kravitz EA. Distribution of acetylcholine, choline, choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in regions and single identified axons of the lobster nervous system. November 1, 1974. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  78. Wallace BG, Talamo BR, Evans PD, Kravitz EA. Octopamine: selective association with specific neurons in the lobster nervous system. July 12, 1974. Brain research.

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  79. Barker DL, Herbert E, Hildebrand JG, Kravitz EA. Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones. October 1, 1972. The Journal of physiology.

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  80. Barker DL, Molinoff PB, Kravitz EA. Octopamine in the lobster nervous system. March 15, 1972. Nature: New biology.

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  81. Orkand PM, Kravitz EA. Localization of the sites of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake in lobster nerve-muscle preparations. April 1, 1971. The Journal of cell biology.

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  82. Hildebrand JG, Barker DL, Herbert E, Kravitz EA. Screening for neurotransmitters: a rapid radiochemical procedure. January 1, 1971. Journal of neurobiology.

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  83. Hall ZW, Bownds MD, Kravitz EA. The metabolism of gamma aminobutyric acid in the lobster nervous system. Enzymes in single excitatory and inhibitory axons. August 1, 1970. The Journal of cell biology.

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  84. Stretton AO, Kravitz EA. Neuronal geometry: determination with a technique of intracellular dye injection. October 4, 1968. Science (New York, N.Y.).

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  85. Iversen LL, Kravitz EA. The metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the lobster nervous system--uptake of GABA in the nerve-muscle preparations. July 1, 1968. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  86. Molinoff PB, Kravitz EA. The metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the lobster nervous system--glutamic decarboxylase. May 1, 1968. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  87. Otsuka M, Kravitz EA, Potter DD. Physiological and chemical architecture of a lobster ganglion with particular reference to gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate. July 1, 1967. Journal of neurophysiology.

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  88. Hall ZW, Kravitz EA. The metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the lobster nervous system. I. GABA-glutamate transaminase. January 1, 1967. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  89. Hall ZW, Kravitz EA. The metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the lobster nervous system. II. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. January 1, 1967. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  90. Iversen LL, Kravitz EA, Otsuka M. Release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from lobster inhibitory neurones. January 1, 1967. The Journal of physiology.

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  91. Otsuka M, Iversen LL, Hall ZW, Kravitz EA. Release of gamma-aminobutyric acid from inhibitory nerves of lobster. October 1, 1966. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  92. Iversen LL, Kravitz EA. Sodium dependence of transmitter uptake at adrenergic nerve terminals. July 1, 1966. Molecular pharmacology.

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  93. Kravitz EA, Molinoff PB, Hall ZW. A comparison of the enzymes and substrates of gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in lobster excitatory and inhibitory axons. September 1, 1965. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

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  94. KRAVITZ EA, POTTER DD. A FURTHER STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID BETWEEN EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY AXONS OF THE LOBSTER. April 1, 1965. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  95. WOODWORTH RC, KRAVITZ EA. AN ADJUSTABLE LIQUID FILTER FOR THE MIDDLE ULTRAVIOLET: ISOLATION OF THE 2804-A LINE OF HG FOR DETECTING PROTEINS IN SOLUTION. February 1, 1965. Analytical biochemistry.

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  96. GROSSMAN A, GROSSMAN GF, POLLACK RL, KRAVITZ E. MODIFICATIONS TO THE AUTOANALYZER FOR THE RAPID RECORDING OF OPTICAL DENSITIES. May 1, 1964. Analytical biochemistry.

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  97. KRAVITZ EA, KUFFLER SW, POTTER DD. GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID AND OTHER BLOCKING COMPOUNDS IN CRUSTACEA. III. THEIR RELATIVE CONCENTRATIONS IN SEPARATED MOTOR AND INHIBITORY AXONS. September 1, 1963. Journal of neurophysiology.

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  98. KRAVITZ EA, KUFFLER SW, POTTER DD, VANGELDER NM. GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID AND OTHER BLOCKING COMPOUNDS IN CRUSTACEA. II. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. September 1, 1963. Journal of neurophysiology.

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  99. KRAVITZ EA. Enzymic formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the peripheral and central nervous system of lobsters. July 1, 1962. Journal of neurochemistry.

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  100. KRAVITZ EA, POTTER DD, VAN GELDER NM. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and other blocking substances extracted from crab muscle. April 28, 1962. Nature.

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  101. KRAVITZ EA, GUARINO AJ. On the effect of inorganic phosphate on hexose phosphate metabolism. November 7, 1958. Science (New York, N.Y.).

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Harvard Medical School
Dept of Neurobiology
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