Michael Greenberg, Ph.D.
Nathan Marsh Pusey Professor of Neurobiology
Our interactions with the outside world trigger changes at neuronal synapses that are critical for proper brain development and higher cognitive function. Research in the Greenberg laboratory has focused on the identification of a genetic program that is activated by neuronal activity, the mechanisms of signal transduction that carry the neuronal activity-dependent signal from the membrane to the nucleus, and the identification of regulators of this experience-dependent process that affect synapse development and plasticity. We are particularly interested in those activity-dependent processes whose dysfunction can lead to the development of diseases of cognitive function.
This work began in 1984 with the discovery that growth factors induce the rapid and transient expression of a family of genes, Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as c-fos, whose functions are crucial for neuronal differentiation, cell survival, and adaptive responses (Greenberg and Ziff, 1984). Our recent studies have used more global screening techniques to identify genes whose activity is regulated by stimuli such as membrane depolarization and calcium influx. For example, we recently employed genome-wide sequencing methods to discover thousands of neuronal activity-regulated distal enhancer elements that function in primary cortical cultures, providing new insights into the mechanism of stimulus-dependent enhancer function. From these and other studies we have identified a number of activity-dependent genes that control various processes such as 1) the complexity of the dendritic arbor, 2) the formation, maturation, and maintenance of spines, the post-synaptic sites of excitatory synapses, 3) the composition of protein complexes at the pre- and post-synaptic sites, and 4) the relative number of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Many disorders of human cognition, including various forms of mental retardation and autism, are correlated with changes in the number of synapses or are believed to be caused by an imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. Thus, understanding how the neuronal activity-dependent gene program functions may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern synaptic development and, ultimately, how the deregulation of this process leads to neurological diseases.
One of our current projects aims to characterize the role of the MeCP2 protein in activity-dependent neuronal responses. MeCP2 binds to methylated CpG DNA sequences and can act as a transcriptional repressor. MECP2 mutations in humans are responsible for >80% of the cases of Rett Syndrome, a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder that shares some characteristics with autism. We have shown that MeCP2 is acutely phosphorylated in response to neuronal activation. Moreover, disruption of MeCP2 phosphorylation in vivo results in defects in synapse development and behavior. In parallel studies, we have also identified Ube3a as a neuronal activity-regulated gene. Loss-of-function mutations in UBE3A give rise to Angelman syndrome, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation and frequent seizures. We have found that Ube3a regulates excitatory synapse development by controlling the degradation of specific neuronal synaptic proteins. Our ongoing investigation of the many molecular players in the activity-regulated gene program should provide new insights into the mechanisms by which neuronal activity shapes the development of the central nervous system.
The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition. November 7, 2013. Nature.
Exercise Induces Hippocampal BDNF through a PGC-1a/FNDC5 Pathway. October 10, 2013. Cell metabolism.
Genetics. The maturing brain methylome. August 9, 2013. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Activity-dependent phosphorylation of MeCP2 threonine 308 regulates interaction with NCoR. July 18, 2013. Nature.
Rett syndrome mutations abolish the interaction of MeCP2 with the NCoR/SMRT co-repressor. June 16, 2013. Nature neuroscience.
Exome sequencing reveals new causal mutations in children with epileptic encephalopathies. May 3, 2013. Epilepsia.
Using whole-exome sequencing to identify inherited causes of autism. January 23, 2013. Neuron.
Activity-dependent neuronal signalling and autism spectrum disorder. January 17, 2013. Nature.
Neuronal Per Arnt Sim (PAS) Domain Protein 4 (NPAS4) Regulates Neurite Outgrowth and Phosphorylation of Synapsin I. November 21, 2012. The Journal of biological chemistry.
A chemical genetic approach reveals distinct EphB signaling mechanisms during brain development. November 11, 2012. Nature neuroscience.
Integrated genome analysis suggests that most conserved non-coding sequences are regulatory factor binding sites. June 8, 2012. Nucleic acids research.
Microglia sculpt postnatal neural circuits in an activity and complement-dependent manner. May 24, 2012. Neuron.
Whole-exome sequencing and homozygosity analysis implicate depolarization-regulated neuronal genes in autism. April 12, 2012. PLoS genetics.
Wnt5a-Ror-Dishevelled signaling constitutes a core developmental pathway that controls tissue morphogenesis. February 17, 2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
The nogo receptor family restricts synapse number in the developing hippocampus. February 9, 2012. Neuron.
Bhlhb5 and Prdm8 form a repressor complex involved in neuronal circuit assembly. January 26, 2012. Neuron.
Rett syndrome mutation MeCP2 T158A disrupts DNA binding, protein stability and ERP responses. November 27, 2011. Nature neuroscience.
EphrinBs send mixed messages. October 26, 2011. Nature neuroscience.
Genome-wide activity-dependent MeCP2 phosphorylation regulates nervous system development and function. October 6, 2011. Neuron.
Cyclin E constrains Cdk5 activity to regulate synaptic plasticity and memory formation. September 22, 2011. Developmental cell.
Neuronal activity-regulated gene transcription in synapse development and cognitive function. June 1, 2011. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology.
EphB-mediated degradation of the RhoA GEF Ephexin5 relieves a developmental brake on excitatory synapse formation. October 29, 2010. Cell.
Widespread transcription at neuronal activity-regulated enhancers. April 14, 2010. Nature.
Loss of inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord and elevated itch in Bhlhb5 mutant mice. March 25, 2010. Neuron.
The Angelman Syndrome protein Ube3A regulates synapse development by ubiquitinating arc. March 5, 2010. Cell.
A bird's-eye view of MeCP2 binding. February 26, 2010. Molecular cell.
Ephexin1 is required for structural maturation and neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction. January 28, 2010. Neuron.
New insights in the biology of BDNF synthesis and release: implications in CNS function. October 14, 2009. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 is phosphorylated by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 and contributes to apoptosis. October 9, 2009. EMBO reports.
Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in an RNA interference model of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 deficiency. October 7, 2009. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis. May 24, 2009. Nature cell biology.
A retrograde neuronal survival response: target-derived neurotrophins regulate MEF2D and bcl-w. May 20, 2009. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Mef2-mediated transcription of the miR379-410 cluster regulates activity-dependent dendritogenesis by fine-tuning Pumilio2 protein levels. February 5, 2009. The EMBO journal.
Activity-dependent transcription and disorders of human cognition. January 1, 2009. The American journal of psychiatry.
Genome-wide analysis of MEF2 transcriptional program reveals synaptic target genes and neuronal activity-dependent polyadenylation site selection. December 26, 2008. Neuron.
A biological function for the neuronal activity-dependent component of Bdnf transcription in the development of cortical inhibition. November 26, 2008. Neuron.
Regulatory light chain mutations associated with cardiomyopathy affect myosin mechanics and kinetics. September 27, 2008. Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology.
From synapse to nucleus: calcium-dependent gene transcription in the control of synapse development and function. September 25, 2008. Neuron.
Activity-dependent regulation of inhibitory synapse development by Npas4. September 24, 2008. Nature.
SnapShot: Ca(2+)-dependent transcription in neurons. September 19, 2008. Cell.
Identifying autism loci and genes by tracing recent shared ancestry. July 11, 2008. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Medicine. Activating a repressor. May 30, 2008. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Identification of molecular markers of bipolar cells in the murine retina. April 10, 2008. The Journal of comparative neurology.
Regulation of motor neuron specification by phosphorylation of neurogenin 2. April 10, 2008. Neuron.
Developmental axon pruning mediated by BDNF-p75NTR-dependent axon degeneration. April 1, 2008. Nature neuroscience.
Dual role of proapoptotic BAD in insulin secretion and beta cell survival. January 27, 2008. Nature medicine.
Communication between the synapse and the nucleus in neuronal development, plasticity, and disease. January 1, 2008. Annual review of cell and developmental biology.
Signaling mechanisms linking neuronal activity to gene expression and plasticity of the nervous system. January 1, 2008. Annual review of neuroscience.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and respiratory function improve after ampakine treatment in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. October 3, 2007. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Polarized signaling endosomes coordinate BDNF-induced chemotaxis of cerebellar precursors. July 5, 2007. Neuron.
The Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 mediates EphB receptor-dependent dendritic spine development. April 17, 2007. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Identification of newly transcribed RNA. April 1, 2007. Current protocols in molecular biology / edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et al.].
An RNAi-based approach identifies molecules required for glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse development. January 18, 2007. Neuron.
Cdk5 regulates EphA4-mediated dendritic spine retraction through an ephexin1-dependent mechanism. December 3, 2006. Nature neuroscience.
Oxidized phosphatidylserine-CD36 interactions play an essential role in macrophage-dependent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. November 13, 2006. The Journal of experimental medicine.
Brain-specific phosphorylation of MeCP2 regulates activity-dependent Bdnf transcription, dendritic growth, and spine maturation. October 19, 2006. Neuron.
START: an automated tool for serial analysis of chromatin occupancy data. February 24, 2006. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England).
Activity-dependent regulation of MEF2 transcription factors suppresses excitatory synapse number. February 17, 2006. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Coupling of cell migration with neurogenesis by proneural bHLH factors. January 23, 2006. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
A brain-specific microRNA regulates dendritic spine development. January 19, 2006. Nature.
Signaling networks that control synapse development and cognitive function. January 1, 2006. Harvey lectures.
Regulation of EphA 4 kinase activity is required for a subset of axon guidance decisions suggesting a key role for receptor clustering in Eph function. August 18, 2005. Neuron.
Eph-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of ephexin1 modulates growth cone collapse. April 21, 2005. Neuron.
Vav family GEFs link activated Ephs to endocytosis and axon guidance. April 21, 2005. Neuron.
The Rac1-GEF Tiam1 couples the NMDA receptor to the activity-dependent development of dendritic arbors and spines. February 17, 2005. Neuron.
Transcriptional control of cognitive development. February 1, 2005. Current opinion in neurobiology.
Mouse brain organization revealed through direct genome-scale TF expression analysis. December 24, 2004. Science (New York, N.Y.).
BDNF regulates the translation of a select group of mRNAs by a mammalian target of rapamycin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway during neuronal development. August 18, 2004. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Relative replicative fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants resistant to enfuvirtide (T-20). May 1, 2004. Journal of virology.
Stress-dependent regulation of FOXO transcription factors by the SIRT1 deacetylase. February 19, 2004. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Derepression of BDNF transcription involves calcium-dependent phosphorylation of MeCP2. October 31, 2003. Science (New York, N.Y.).
BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis. August 21, 2003. Nature.
The Drosophila forkhead transcription factor FOXO mediates the reduction in cell number associated with reduced insulin signaling. August 7, 2003. Journal of biology.
Bad-deficient mice develop diffuse large B cell lymphoma. July 22, 2003. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Basic helix-loop-helix factors in cortical development. July 3, 2003. Neuron.
Upstream stimulatory factors are mediators of Ca2+-responsive transcription in neurons. April 1, 2003. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
The many forks in FOXO's road. March 4, 2003. Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment.
Regulation of transcription factors by neuronal activity. December 1, 2002. Nature reviews. Neuroscience.
Survival factor-mediated BAD phosphorylation raises the mitochondrial threshold for apoptosis. November 1, 2002. Developmental cell.
Time-lapse imaging of a dynamic phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interaction in mammalian cells. November 1, 2002. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Analysis of phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions using a bacterial two-hybrid system. July 23, 2002. Science's STKE : signal transduction knowledge environment.
The IGF-1/Akt pathway is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease and involves Huntingtin phosphorylation by Akt. June 1, 2002. Developmental cell.
DNA repair pathway stimulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a through the Gadd45 protein. April 19, 2002. Science (New York, N.Y.).
CREB transcriptional activity in neurons is regulated by multiple, calcium-specific phosphorylation events. April 11, 2002. Neuron.
14-3-3 transits to the nucleus and participates in dynamic nucleocytoplasmic transport. February 25, 2002. The Journal of cell biology.
A calcium-responsive transcription factor, CaRF, that regulates neuronal activity-dependent expression of BDNF. January 31, 2002. Neuron.
Modulation of NMDA receptor-dependent calcium influx and gene expression through EphB receptors. December 20, 2001. Science (New York, N.Y.).
14-3-3 inhibits Bad-induced cell death through interaction with serine-136. December 1, 2001. Molecular pharmacology.
Mutation of E2F2 in mice causes enhanced T lymphocyte proliferation, leading to the development of autoimmunity. December 1, 2001. Immunity.
The E2F1-3 transcription factors are essential for cellular proliferation. November 22, 2001. Nature.
Signaling to the nucleus by an L-type calcium channel-calmodulin complex through the MAP kinase pathway. October 12, 2001. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Beta-amyloid induces neuronal apoptosis via a mechanism that involves the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and the induction of Fas ligand. October 1, 2001. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Calcium regulation of neuronal gene expression. September 25, 2001. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
REST acts through multiple deacetylase complexes. August 16, 2001. Neuron.
Myc requires distinct E2F activities to induce S phase and apoptosis. July 1, 2001. Molecular cell.
Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK phosphorylates and negatively regulates B-Raf. June 15, 2001. The Journal of biological chemistry.
Transcription-dependent and -independent control of neuronal survival by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. June 1, 2001. Current opinion in neurobiology.
Calcium phosphate transfection of DNA into neurons in primary culture. May 1, 2001. Current protocols in neuroscience / editorial board, Jacqueline N. Crawley ... [et al.].
EphA receptors regulate growth cone dynamics through the novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor ephexin. April 20, 2001. Cell.
Neurogenin promotes neurogenesis and inhibits glial differentiation by independent mechanisms. February 9, 2001. Cell.
Protein kinase SGK mediates survival signals by phosphorylating the forkhead transcription factor FKHRL1 (FOXO3a). February 1, 2001. Molecular and cellular biology.
EphB receptors interact with NMDA receptors and regulate excitatory synapse formation. December 8, 2000. Cell.
Magnitude of the CREB-dependent transcriptional response is determined by the strength of the interaction between the kinase-inducible domain of CREB and the KIX domain of CREB-binding protein. December 1, 2000. Molecular and cellular biology.
14-3-3 proteins and survival kinases cooperate to inactivate BAD by BH3 domain phosphorylation. July 1, 2000. Molecular cell.
Orchestral maneuvers in the axon: trio and the control of axon guidance. April 28, 2000. Cell.
Cellular survival: a play in three Akts. November 15, 1999. Genes & development.
Cell survival promoted by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway by transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. November 12, 1999. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Neuronal activity-dependent cell survival mediated by transcription factor MEF2. October 22, 1999. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Two elements target SIV Nef to the AP-2 clathrin adaptor complex, but only one is required for the induction of CD4 endocytosis. May 17, 1999. The EMBO journal.
Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a Forkhead transcription factor. March 19, 1999. Cell.
CREB: a stimulus-induced transcription factor activated by a diverse array of extracellular signals. January 1, 1999. Annual review of biochemistry.
Nonhomologous end-joining proteins are required for V(D)J recombination, normal growth, and neurogenesis. January 1, 1999. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology.
HIV and SIV Nef modulate signal transduction and protein sorting in T cells. January 1, 1999. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology.
A critical role for DNA end-joining proteins in both lymphogenesis and neurogenesis. December 23, 1998. Cell.
Huntingtin acts in the nucleus to induce apoptosis but death does not correlate with the formation of intranuclear inclusions. October 2, 1998. Cell.
Ca2+ channel-regulated neuronal gene expression. October 1, 1998. Journal of neurobiology.
Essential role of the fosB gene in molecular, cellular, and behavioral actions of chronic electroconvulsive seizures. September 1, 1998. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Fos family members induce cell cycle entry by activating cyclin D1. September 1, 1998. Molecular and cellular biology.
Nerve growth factor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to stimulate CREB serine 133 phosphorylation. April 1, 1998. Molecular and cellular biology.
Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism. April 1, 1998. Neuron.
Effects of heterologous downstream sequences on the activity of the HIV-1 promoter and its response to Tat. December 15, 1997. Nucleic acids research.
CREB: a major mediator of neuronal neurotrophin responses. November 1, 1997. Neuron.
Neurotrophin regulation of gene expression. November 1, 1997. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques.
Akt phosphorylation of BAD couples survival signals to the cell-intrinsic death machinery. October 17, 1997. Cell.
Regulation of gliogenesis in the central nervous system by the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. October 17, 1997. Science (New York, N.Y.).
FosB mutant mice: loss of chronic cocaine induction of Fos-related proteins and heightened sensitivity to cocaine's psychomotor and rewarding effects. September 16, 1997. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Potentiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat by human cellular proteins. September 1, 1997. Journal of virology.
A cytoplasmic inhibitor of the JNK signal transduction pathway. August 1, 1997. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Spatial features of calcium-regulated gene expression. August 1, 1997. BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology.
A kinase to remember: dual roles for MAP kinase in long-term memory. June 1, 1997. Neuron.
Regulation of neuronal survival by the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt. January 31, 1997. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Calcium influx via the NMDA receptor induces immediate early gene transcription by a MAP kinase/ERK-dependent mechanism. September 1, 1996. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience.
Coupling of the RAS-MAPK pathway to gene activation by RSK2, a growth factor-regulated CREB kinase. August 16, 1996. Science (New York, N.Y.).
A defect in nurturing in mice lacking the immediate early gene fosB. July 26, 1996. Cell.
E2F-1 functions in mice to promote apoptosis and suppress proliferation. May 17, 1996. Cell.
Stimulation of growth factor receptor signal transduction by activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. February 6, 1996. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Ca(2+)-dependent routes to Ras: mechanisms for neuronal survival, differentiation, and plasticity? February 1, 1996. Neuron.
Light entrainment and activation of signal transduction pathways in the SCN. January 1, 1996. Progress in brain research.
Intracellular signaling pathways activated by neurotrophic factors. January 1, 1996. Annual review of neuroscience.
Signal transduction pathways activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor and related cytokines. January 1, 1996. Perspectives on developmental neurobiology.
Opposing effects of ERK and JNK-p38 MAP kinases on apoptosis. November 24, 1995. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Induction of a nerve growth factor-sensitive kinase that phosphorylates the DNA-binding domain of the orphan nuclear receptor NGFI-B. October 1, 1995. Journal of neurochemistry.
Interleukin 2 signaling involves the phosphorylation of Stat proteins. August 15, 1995. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Calcium activation of Ras mediated by neuronal exchange factor Ras-GRF. August 10, 1995. Nature.
Distinct roles for bFGF and NT-3 in the regulation of cortical neurogenesis. July 1, 1995. Neuron.
Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase. July 1, 1995. Molecular and cellular biology.
Calcium regulation of gene expression in neurons: the mode of entry matters. June 1, 1995. Current opinion in neurobiology.
Calcium signaling in neurons: molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences. April 14, 1995. Science (New York, N.Y.).
The nonamer UUAUUUAUU is the key AU-rich sequence motif that mediates mRNA degradation. April 1, 1995. Molecular and cellular biology.
Serine 133-phosphorylated CREB induces transcription via a cooperative mechanism that may confer specificity to neurotrophin signals. April 1, 1995. Molecular and cellular neurosciences.
L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel activation regulates c-fos transcription at multiple levels. March 3, 1995. The Journal of biological chemistry.
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are critical for mediating the effects of glutamate on intracellular calcium concentration and immediate early gene expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. February 1, 1995. Neuroscience.
Calcium regulation of gene expression. January 1, 1995. Advances in second messenger and phosphoprotein research.
L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel activation stimulates gene expression by a serum response factor-dependent pathway. October 14, 1994. The Journal of biological chemistry.
CREB: a mediator of long-term memory from mollusks to mammals. October 7, 1994. Cell.
Nerve growth factor activates a Ras-dependent protein kinase that stimulates c-fos transcription via phosphorylation of CREB. June 3, 1994. Cell.
Membrane depolarization and calcium influx stimulate MEK and MAP kinase via activation of Ras. June 1, 1994. Neuron.
Requirement for BDNF in activity-dependent survival of cortical neurons. March 18, 1994. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Calcium regulation of gene expression in neuronal cells. March 1, 1994. Journal of neurobiology.
Multiple elements in the c-fos protein-coding region facilitate mRNA deadenylation and decay by a mechanism coupled to translation. February 4, 1994. The Journal of biological chemistry.
Characterization of a pathway for ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling to the nucleus. December 3, 1993. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Expression of endogenous NMDAR1 transcripts without receptor protein suggests post-transcriptional control in PC12 cells. October 25, 1993. The Journal of biological chemistry.
A growth factor-induced kinase phosphorylates the serum response factor at a site that regulates its DNA-binding activity. October 1, 1993. Molecular and cellular biology.
The destabilizing elements in the coding region of c-fos mRNA are recognized as RNA. August 1, 1993. Molecular and cellular biology.
Regulation of gene expression in hippocampal neurons by distinct calcium signaling pathways. April 9, 1993. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Regulation of CREB phosphorylation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus by light and a circadian clock. April 9, 1993. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation. March 25, 1993. The Journal of biological chemistry.
Regulation of proto-oncogene mRNA stability. December 16, 1992. Biochimica et biophysica acta.
Growth and differentiation of embryonic stem cells that lack an intact c-fos gene. October 1, 1992. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Trans-synaptic regulation of gene expression. June 1, 1992. Current opinion in neurobiology.
Regulation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation by acute and chronic morphine in the rat locus coeruleus. March 1, 1992. Journal of neurochemistry.
Calcium regulation of immediate early gene transcription. January 1, 1992. Journal of physiology, Paris.
The serum response factor is extensively modified by phosphorylation following its synthesis in serum-stimulated fibroblasts. September 1, 1991. Molecular and cellular biology.
Stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation by NMDA receptor activation. August 23, 1991. Science (New York, N.Y.).
CREB: a Ca(2+)-regulated transcription factor phosphorylated by calmodulin-dependent kinases. June 7, 1991. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Nur77 is differentially modified in PC12 cells upon membrane depolarization and growth factor treatment. June 1, 1991. Molecular and cellular biology.
Two distinct destabilizing elements in the c-fos message trigger deadenylation as a first step in rapid mRNA decay. February 1, 1991. Genes & development.
Growth factor-induced gene expression: the ups and downs of c-fos regulation. September 1, 1990. The New biologist.
The regulation and function of c-fos and other immediate early genes in the nervous system. April 1, 1990. Neuron.
Membrane depolarization and calcium induce c-fos transcription via phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB. April 1, 1990. Neuron.
The inner core of the serum response element mediates both the rapid induction and subsequent repression of c-fos transcription following serum stimulation. February 1, 1990. Genes & development.
Deadenylylation: a mechanism controlling c-fos mRNA decay. January 1, 1990. Enzyme.
Targeting of nonexpressed genes in embryonic stem cells via homologous recombination. September 15, 1989. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Growth factors and membrane depolarization activate distinct programs of early response gene expression: dissociation of fos and jun induction. March 1, 1989. Genes & development.
The c-fos transcript is targeted for rapid decay by two distinct mRNA degradation pathways. January 1, 1989. Genes & development.
c-Jun dimerizes with itself and with c-Fos, forming complexes of different DNA binding affinities. December 2, 1988. Cell.
Calcium and growth factor pathways of c-fos transcriptional activation require distinct upstream regulatory sequences. July 1, 1988. Molecular and cellular biology.
Mutation of the c-fos gene dyad symmetry element inhibits serum inducibility of transcription in vivo and the nuclear regulatory factor binding in vitro. March 1, 1987. Molecular and cellular biology.
Alternative modes of c-myc regulation in growth factor-stimulated and differentiating cells. January 1, 1987. Oncogene.
Stimulation of neuronal acetylcholine receptors induces rapid gene transcription. October 3, 1986. Science (New York, N.Y.).
Effect of protein synthesis inhibitors on growth factor activation of c-fos, c-myc, and actin gene transcription. April 1, 1986. Molecular and cellular biology.
Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor induce rapid transient changes in proto-oncogene transcription in PC12 cells. November 15, 1985. The Journal of biological chemistry.
Increased phosphorylation of tyrosine in vinculin does not occur upon transformation by some avian sarcoma viruses. January 1, 1985. Molecular and cellular biology.
Stimulation of 3T3 cells induces transcription of the c-fos proto-oncogene. October 1, 1984. Nature.
Alteration of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expression after neuronal cell transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. February 1, 1984. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Changes in the distribution of the 34-kdalton tyrosine kinase substrate during differentiation and maturation of chicken tissues. February 1, 1984. The Journal of cell biology.
Comparison of the 34,000-Da pp60src substrate and a 38,000-Da phosphoprotein identified by monoclonal antibodies. July 10, 1983. The Journal of biological chemistry.
The 34 kd pp60src substrate is located at the inner face of the plasma membrane. July 1, 1983. Cell.
Structure and modulation of neural cell adhesion molecules in early and late embryogenesis. January 1, 1983. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology.
Activities of the src-gene product of avian sarcoma virus. January 1, 1980. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology.
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